Friday, September 4, 2009

DECISION CONTROL STRUCTURE (IF)

A decision control instruction can be implemented in C using:
1.The if statement
2.The if-else statement
3.The conditional operators

The if Statement
Like most languages, C uses the keyword if to implement the decision control instruction. The general form of if statement looks like this:
if ( this condition is true )
execute this statement ;
The keyword if tells the compiler that what follows is a decision control instruction. The condition following the keyword if is always enclosed within a pair of parentheses. If the condition, whatever it is, is true, then the statement is executed. If the condition is not true then the statement is not executed; instead the program skips past it. But how do we express the condition itself in C? And how do we evaluate its truth or falsity? As a general rule, we express a condition using C’s ‘relational’ operators. The relational operators allow us to compare two values to see whether they are equal to each other, unequal, or whether one is greater than the other.

/* Demonstration of if statement */
main( )
{
int num ;
printf ( "Enter a number less than 10 " ) ;
scanf ( "%d", &num ) ;
if ( num <= 10 )
printf ( "What an obedient servant you are !" ) ;
}
On execution of this program, if you type a number less than or equal to 10, you get a message on the screen through printf( ). If you type some other number the program doesn’t do anything. The following flowchart would help you understand the flow of control in the program.

Multiple Statements within if
It may so happen that in a program we want more than one statement to be executed if the expression following if is satisfied. If such multiple statements are to be executed then they must be placed within a pair of braces as illustrated in the following example.
/* Calculation of bonus */
main( )
{
int bonus, cy, yoj, yr_of_ser ;
printf ( "Enter current year and year of joining " ) ;
scanf ( "%d %d", &cy, &yoj ) ;
yr_of_ser = cy - yoj ;
if ( yr_of_ser > 3 )
{
bonus = 2500 ;
printf ( "Bonus = Rs. %d", bonus ) ;
}
}
Observe that here the two statements to be executed on satisfaction of the condition have been enclosed within a pair of braces. If a pair of braces is not used then the C compiler assumes that the programmer wants only the immediately next statement after the if to be executed on satisfaction of the condition. In other words we can say that the default scope of the if statement is the immediately next statement after it.

The if-else Statement
The if statement by itself will execute a single statement, or a group of statements, when the expression following if evaluates to true. It does nothing when the expression evaluates to false. Can we execute one group of statements if the expression evaluates to true and another group of statements if the expression evaluates to false.This is what is the purpose of the else statement that is demonstrated in the following example:

/* Calculation of gross salary */
main( )
{
float bs, gs, da, hra ;
printf ( "Enter basic salary " ) ;
scanf ( "%f", &bs ) ;
if ( bs < 1500 )
{
hra = bs * 10 / 100 ;
da = bs * 90 / 100 ;
}
else
{
hra = 500 ;
da = bs * 98 / 100 ;
}
gs = bs + hra + da ;
printf ( "gross salary = Rs. %f", gs ) ;
}

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